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Therapeutic Recreation News & Articles- 1996
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News Archives

"inTeRlink" is an on-line therapeutic recreation newsletter featuring links to articles on & related to recreation therapy and therapeutic recreation on the Internet. Send news items and links to Charlie Dixon. Date shown on each article reflect the date link/item was added to this page and not necessary the date the article was written. As time goes by, many of the sites no longer posts their article so some of the links on this page may be broken.

Discover the Healing Power Of Therapeutic Touch

By Rochelle B. Mackey, RN, CNS, C, MA at American Journal of Nursing

While critics attack it as 'faith healing,' proponents say it's a potent nursing adjunct. Here, a practitioner outlines the basic principles of therapeutic touch--and what current research reveals--to help you decide for yourself.

Psychosocial Care: Document It

By Kathleen E. Jost, RN, MS at American Journal of Nursing

Reassuring patients and their families when they're anxious, calming them when they're angry, helping them make choices and solve problems--these interventions aren't just 'talk.' They're integral to your practice. But if you're not charting them, you may not be getting the credit you deserve.

Enabling Behavior: The Tender Trap

By Tova Navarra, RN, BA at American Journal of Nursing

Sometimes, words and actions intended to help an addict can be quite harmful. Follow this nurse as she skirts the temptations that snare "enablers" and gets her addicted patient on the road to recovery.

'I'd Rather DieThan Live This Way'

By Rosemary Ferdinand, RN, MS, CS at American Journal of Nursing

A terminally ill patient who expresses suicidal ideation can present both a clinical challenge and an ethical dilemma. These guidelines will help you determine the reasons for a patient's desire to die--and respond to her cry for help without compromising your professional principles.

Indiana University Announces Video Collection Three

(12-11-96) Indiana University's Recreation Therapy Video Project has announced the availability of "Video Collection Three" for 1996-1997. The new collection contains five videos including:

Individual Program Planning (23:10 min)- Follows a client through the treatment services provided by a therapeutic recreation specialist using individual program planning.

Adaptive Equipment (21:40 min)- Explores various types of adaptive equipment that are available through vendors as well as items that can be made by recreation therapists.

Computer Applications in Therapeutic Recreation (22:18 min)- Illustrates how computers can be used in TR. Charlie Dixon of compuTR guides viewers through some currently available computer applications.

TR Models: Leisure Ability Model (21:45 min)- This vide features Carol Ann Peterson, Ph. D. as she discusses the three components of the Leisure Ability Model: therapy, leisure education, and leisure participation.

TR Models: Health Promotion/Health Protection Model (20:26 min)- This video features David Austin, Ph.D. as he discuss the components of the Health Protection/Health Promotion Model: prescriptive activities, recreation, and leisure.

The collection costs $100. If sold separately the cost of each video is $25. For further information, contact the Recreation Therapy Video Project, 133 HPER, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, phone at 812-855-7642, fax at 812,855,3998.

Music Therapy & Biofeedback

by Eric B.Miller Ph.D. CMT-BC BCIAC, at Expressive Therapy Concepts

(11-20-96) Music may also be used as a vehicle to assist in achieving a relaxed state. Spoken images of relaxation, light, color and beaches in conjunction with music are all typical in the guided imagery interventions.


Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, [Originally published in Am. Health Care Assoc. J. 4(5):68-71.]

(11-20-96) The increased interest in gardening as a leisure pursuit in all areas of society is being reflected in nursing homes and related care centers.


Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, [Originally published in J. Rehab. 39(1):27-29.]

(11-20-96) Horticulture is not a new therapeutic tool. Before psychiatry became a science, work in the garden was prescribed as a curative for ills of the mind and nervous system.


Christopher O. Hill, Paula Diane Relf, [Originally published in Activities, Adaptations and Aging 3(1):47-54.]

(11-20-96) ...activity directors, have the responsibility for selecting and providing appropriate activity programs for the residents of their institutions. Goals of these programs are generally to improve and enhance, or at least maintain, residents' morale, social interaction, cooperation, self-confidence, and physical functioning.


Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, [Originally published in Rehab. Lit. 42:147-150.]

(11-20-96) As horticulture is used increasingly in a variety of therapeutic settings, understanding of its value and the mechanisms by which it works improves. As theories are developed and explanations of observations are made, scientific research will become an integral part of horticultural therapy programming.

Validation Therapy: Breaking Through the Alzheimer's

by Walt Fulps, CTRS at Activity Therapy Innovations

(11-16-96) Validation therapy was first developed by Naomi Feil, ACSW, who is the Executive Director of the Validation Training Institute in Cleveland, Ohio. It is a relatively new technique for communicating with elderly persons suffering from Alzheimer's.

Depression: The Misunderstood Illness

by Dr. Scott Brown, PhD. at Activity Therapy Innovations

(11-16-96) The most successful treatment combines the use of medication administered by a board certified psychiatrist with talk-therapy conducted by a psychologist or social worker, and various types of experiential therapies administered by various activity therapists. Activity therapists are often left with the task of restructuring the person's leisure time to create new avenues for pleasure and enjoyment as well as for motional expression and self-discovery.

Therapeutic Recreation in the Public Schools

by Jon Bair, MS, CTRS at Activity Therapy Innovations

(11-16-96) The underlying assumption of this article is that the junior and senior high school student not yet in need of an intervening process to slow down or reverse a debilitating condition can benefit from the expertise of the CTRS.

In Search of the Perfect Assessment

by Walt Fulps, CTRS at Activity Therapy Innovations

You may one day find a standardized assessment that seems perfect for your program, but you should bare in mind that you know your program and your patients better than anyone. Therefore, it falls to you to develop the assessment tool that will best identify the needs of your clientele.

ATRA Honors Professionals and Organizations

From ATRA Newsletter, Volume 12, #5

(11-14-96) DISTINGUISHED FELLOW Award- Glen Van Andel, for his long-standing and consistent contributions to the field of Recreation Therapy, particularly in the area of standards development.

OUTSTANDING PROFESSIONAL Award- Becky Stackhouse, for her significant contributions to ATRA and her profession through her leadership in the Chapter Affiliate Council, Bay Area ATRA Chapter, Definition Statement Task Force, San Francisco Conference Committee, and her past work with the Advocacy Committee.

MEMBER OF THE YEAR- Colleen Deyell Hood for her exceptional committee work as Chair of the Protocol Committee as well as her many professional presentations and publications.

INDIVIDUAL CITATION was presented to Paul Cowles for his tireless support of Recreational Therapy, accumulating over 19,000 hours of volunteer services in the Recreational Therapy Services Department of Williamsport Hospital.

FRANK N. BRASILE CLINICIAN OF THE YEAR AWARD- Bob Krider for his many positive contributions to the field of therapeutic recreation including: coauthoring a professional book, leadership positions on both a national and local level, supervision and support for students, and development of a unique therapeutic recreation game for use with clients.

ORGANIZATION OR INSTITUTION CITATION- Decker School of Nursing at Binghampton University for their promotion of the field of Recreation Therapy through workshops, coursework in the field of TR and TR-Nursing research projects.

EXCELLENCE IN EDUCATION Award- UNC Hospitals for their long history of commitment to excellence in therapeutic recreation education.

SCHOLARLY ACHIEVEMENT Award- Cynthia Carruthers for contributions to the field of Recreation Therapy especially in the area of alcohol abuse and the treatment implications for therapeutic recreation.

CHAPTER AFFILIATE OF THE YEAR- NCTRA (North Carolina Recreation Therapy Association) for outstanding leadership in the state, in the national Association and in the profession.

CERTIFICATES OF RECOGNITION- Catherine Tooze, Mallory Thomas Harwood, Michael Haire, Barbara Jean Stuebing and Linda Aldrich for exceptional service to ATRA.

PRESIDENTIAL AWARDS -Debra Robbins-Sisco, Alisa Krinsky, Elizabeth Lewis Sorensen, Diane Wagner and Alfred Kaye.

Sick Kids Find Help in a Cyberspace World

From the Journal of the American Medical Association --by Joan Stephenson, PhD

(11-13-96) YOUNGSTERS at four hospitals scattered across the country recently "met" with a movie mogul and a four-star general to roam a computer-generated world of tropical rain forests, caves with hidden passages, and other inviting destinations--a virtual playground that its developers hope will diminish the pain, anxieties, and isolation of children hospitalized due to serious and chronic illness.

NYSRPS Planning a Weekend Retreat

(11-06-96) The Therapeutic Recreation Executive Board of the New York State Recreation & Parks planning a Weekend Retreat (Nov. 22, 23, 24, 1996) to examine the role of a state membership society in serving it's Therapeutic Recreation members. Each Board Member has invited one or two TR Professionals/Educators/Students who expressed an interest to help re-define the role of the Executive Board. Participants will be evaluating & developing past, present and future practices and dynamics in the relationship of the Executive Board to the membership. Participants will also be re-defining the vision/mission of the board with plans to bring the board's operations in line with the technology for improved communication and improved responsiveness to the membership. The Retreat will be run by a hired Facilitator.


compiled by Jeff Mansfield at The Recreation Therapy Home Page

(10-27-96) Development and growth of the recreational therapy profession has historically been preceded by event (war/epidemic) generated health care needs. Essentially, these health care needs are what create health care jobs.

"My Dinner with Bernie"

by Jeff Mansfield at The Recreation Therapy Home Page

(10-27-96) An interview with Dr. Bernath Eugene Phillips (PH.D. Physical Education, Penn State 1941) American Association of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation's Recreational Therapy Section Editor from 1952 to 1958; Recreation Specialist, Special Service, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Veterans Administration; Chairman of the Conference Steering Committee and Conference Report Editor, 1957 Conference on Recreation for the Mentally Ill; and first Hospital Recreation Director registered by the Council for the Advancement of Hospital Recreation.

Wheelin' Sportsmen of Alabama

This article is from the Pushin' On Newsletter, Vol 14(2), Summer, 1996, published by: The Medical RRTC in Secondary Complications in Spinal Cord Injury, housed at the UAB-Dept of Physical Medicine and Rehab, 1717 6th Ave. S, Birmingham, AL 35233-7330.

(10-27-96) Kirk Thomas, founder and president, received his spinal cord injury when a tree fell on him during a hunting trip in 1991. He has paraplegia. "I could not figure out why I was the one that was disabled. I slowly realized it was my job to start this organization. Individuals with disabilities need the opportunity to enjoy outdoor activities."

Sports and Tetraplegia, A Working Combination!

by Hope Kelly, Therapeutic Recreation Specialist

This article is from the Pushin' On Newsletter, Vol 13(1), Winter, 1995, published by: The Medical RRTC in Secondary Complications in Spinal Cord Injury, housed at the UAB-Dept of Rehab Medicine, 1717 6th Ave. S, Birmingham, AL 35233-7330.

(10-27-96) Sports. They're not for everyone, but for those who participate in sports, they open whole new worlds. There are the obvious physical benefits, like increased strength, endurance, and decreased weight and pressure sores. In addition there are the emotional and social benefits.

Challenges Facing Therapeutic Recreation

by Alistair MacKinnon at The Recreation Therapy Home Page

(10-27-96) The challenges facing Therapeutic Recreation at the moment are:

1. The lack of information on Therapeutic Recreation that is available to other professional bodies or organizations where Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist's find themselves working, and

2. The lack of professional and personal development of entering Therapeutic Recreation Specialists.

Staying Active: New Adventures or Old Hobbies

This article is from the Pushin' On Newsletter, Vol 13(2), Summer, 1995, published by: The Medical RRTC in Secondary Complications in Spinal Cord Injury, housed at the UAB-Dept of Rehab Medicine, 1717 6th Ave. S, Birmingham, AL 35233-7330.

(10-27-96) "The first year after my injury I was busy just building myself up physically. After I finished my out-patient therapy, I contacted the recreational therapist and learned about "Special Equestrians". The director of the program in Birmingham, Kathleen Claybrook, reassured me that though I had never been on a horse before, I would not fall off!"

ATRA Chapters Hold Workshop on Television

submitted by David Austin

(10-15-96) On Saturday, September 7, 1996, at 9:30 a.m. EDT a historic event began. Via the technology of video-conferencing, members of the Chesapeake Area, Cincinnati/Dayton and Indiana ATRA chapters took part in a full-day workshop on "Research for the Practitioner." The televised workshop, initiated by the Chesapeake Area Recreation Therapy Association (CHARTA), is believed to be the first TR continuing education program to be presented over interactive television.

The workshop originated from a studio/classroom at Indiana University, Bloomington, and was received at sites in Upper Malboro, Maryland, and Cincinnati, Ohio. It was lead by Dr. Bryan McCormick, CTRS, and Dr. Bill Brechue. Dr. McCormick is a therapeutic recreation professor and Dr. Brechue is a kinesiology professor. Both are IU faculty. Coordinators for the unique workshop were Marcia Smith, CTRS, of the Chesapeake Area Chapter and Bob Krider, CTRS, of the Cincinnati/Dayton Chapter. Both Ms. Smith and Mr. Krider termed the workshop to be a success. ATRA members who participated indicated they learned a great deal about doing research and enjoyed the experience of interacting with colleagues across America through the technology of teleconferencing.

Dr. David Austin, CTRS, Coordinator of Distance Learning for IU's School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, stated, "We were very please with the outcomes of this initial televised workshop." Another televised workshop, on professionalism, is planned for February. It will feature Ann Huston, CTRS, ATRA's Executive Director.

NTRS Fred Humphrey Internship Program needs applicants

(10-12-96) The NTRS Fred Humphrey Internship Program is a unique opportunity for a graduate student to work with with NRPA public Policy Division and NTRS. In reality the program is a capstone learning experience which focuses on advocacy efforts and public policy. The individual must be a member of NTRS with a major or concentration in TR and be certified CTRS. The closing date is Nov. 1, and interested persons should contact Rikki Epstein, NTRS Program Director at FAX 703-671-6772 or E-mail at for an application form.


(9-13-96) Recreation is identified in P.L. 94-142 as a related service which enhances the educational goals of a child with a disability. If recreation is included in a child's IEP, it cannot be completed by a curricular service such as special education or physical education. Recreation should be provided by a trained Therapeutic Recreation Specialist as specified in the EHA [sections 1211.126(b)2, and 121a.382(a)3]. by Dr. Sable and Dr. Powell

Therapeutic Recreation Software

(8-15-96) Performance Plus, a Lifestyle Management Company based out of Halifax, Nova Scotia has developed a software program designed to track individual client progress from admission to discharge. The Therapeutic Recreation Software also can establish a complete database specific to each agency's clients, develop individual & master activity interest lists, plan & evaluate programs, profile individual program participation, produce multi-client reports, and monitor quality assurance. Contact Andrew Ritchey at (902) 452-8473. You can download a demo of the TRS at <>.

NCTRC's New Board Members

(8-11-96) The following individuals have begun service to NCTRC.... Robert Oswald Buck, Jr was appointed as Consumer Representative to the Board of Directors.... Debbie Rios, MS, CTRS was appointed as Employer Representative to the Board of Directors.... Bonita Davis, CTRS was elected to the Board and will serve from April 1996 to 1999.... Karen Luken, MS, CTRS was elected to the Board and will serve form April 1996 to 1999... Al Kaye, MS, CTRS was appointed to the Standards Review Committee.



To the new officers of NTRS...

  • President-Elect: Karen C. Wenzel, Denver, CO
  • At-Large Director: Annette Logan, York, PA
  • Pacific Northwest Director: Deborah Dumont, Boise, ID
  • Southwest Director: Dorothea Coleman, Spring, TX
  • Midwest Director: Susie Myers, Kansas City, KS

1996 Missouri "Therapeutic Recreator of the Year" award presented to Steve Branstetter, CTRS, Heartland Hospital, Nevada, MO by MPRA and MTRS.

Peg Connolly, CTRS (Distinguished Service Award), Steve Victory, CTRS (Outstanding Professional), Sue Drumgould, CTRS (Innovative Program), The Jewish Home and Hospital, Bronx, NY (Organization of the Year)), and Debbie Keville, CTRS (Outstanding Member of the Year Award) by NYSTRA.

ATRA to offer CEU's by Correspondence

(6-28-96) Recreation therapy professionals will now have opportunity to receive continuing education credits via correspondence by reading the ATRA Annual in Therapeutic Recreation and completing its corresponding articles exam. For more information, contact Recreational Therapy Research and Consulting (RTRC), PO Box 80402, Phoenix, AZ 85060-0402 or call (602) 381-7783.

ATRA Update

(6-28-96) ATRA will be participating with the American Association of Critical Care Nurses as part of its interdisciplinary project in the development of curriculum guidelines for subacute professionals.

ATRA will be co-sponsoring the 5th National Alzheimer's Disease Education Conference to be held in Chicago, IL from July 14-17, 1996.

ATRA joined forces with the National Association for the Support of Long Term Care in an effort to identify critical liaisons with other professional associations and groups.

(6-14-96) TESTIMONY presented by Bruce Scott (Consumer Representative) on behalf ATRA to the HOUSE APPROPRIATIONS SUBCOMMITTEE ON LABOR, HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES AND EDUCATION March 7, 1996.
O'Morrow Wins Distinguished Professional Award (Nov 1995)

(5-24-96) RADFORD - The chair of Radford University's recreation and leisure services department, Gerald S. O'Morrow, has been named National Distinguished Professional by the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA).

(linked article no longer available, please send updated URL)


Dave Dehn, CTRS, Parks and Recreation Magazine, May, 1996

(5-23-96) The Leisure Step Up Manual and Workbook were developed to provide recreation therapists a goal-oriented direction in offering a comprehensive individualized treatment program.

(linked article no longer available, please send updated URL)


Dr. Carol Stensrud, RTC, CTRS, Parks and Recreation Magazine, May, 1996

(5-23-96) Today, the majority of people with disabilities live, play and work in their communities. Since the early 1970s when de-institutionalization became prevalent, transitional living settings such as group homes and coached individual living environments have become more prevalent in most communities.

ParaProfessional Guidelines Task Force

(5-9-96) The NTRS Paraprofessional Guidelines Task Force is working on "Standards for Therapeutic Recreation Paraprofessionals." This task force is attempting to address issues of those in the field of therapeutic recreation with less than a four-year college degree. The task force is examining options for alternative certification since NCTRC is no longer offering the paraprofessional level of certification. Working with the task force is the NTRS 750-Hour Paraprofessional Review Board to work on issues related to paraprofessionals, including certification, standards, and training. For comments, suggestions, and information contact Sharon Malley at (706) 542-5064 or JoAnn Jones at (619) 940-0811.

Recreation Therapists Given Awards

(5-9-96) The TR section of the GRPA awarded Myra Fain (regional coordinator for the Georgia Department of Corrections) "Professional of the Year Award." Mary Ann Loeffler, CTRS, CLP received the 1995 "Fellow Award" from the Colorado Parks and Recreation Association. Tria Mann, CTRS was presented with the "Meritorious Service Award" from the Minnesota Recreation and Parks Association. Congratulations!

Mixing fun and therapy of enormous benefit to children

(4-30-96)  (linked article no longer available... But much more was happening. Joshua's laughter was strengthening his diaphragm, improving his lung capacity; the movement of water massaged his muscles and the stimulation sharpened Joshua's reflexes, his feeling of independence and self-esteem.

Licensure: Questions for the Profession

(3-11-96) (linked article no longer available) Read this article by Peg Connelly about licensure and therapeutic recreation.

New Major in TR at Ithaca College

(2-28-96) (linked article no longer available) Ithaca College will become only the 4th college in the United States to offer an accredited, INDEPENDENT bachelor of science degree in therapeutic recreation. Students will be able to concentrate on focus areas such as gerontology, pediatrics, mental health, or chemical dependency.

Activity Therapy: Hobbies do more than just pass

(linked article no longer available, please send updated URL)

(2-23-96) Read this article from the Mayo Clinic Health Newsletter.

Play Therapy

(linked article no longer available, please send updated URL)

(2-14-96) Read Donna Becker's extensive article on play therapy for kids with ADHD.

Recreation Therapy WWW Page

(2-14-96) Jeff Mansfield, a student at Western Carolina University has put together an extensive recreation therapy web site on the Internet. The URL is <>. Be sure to stop by Jeff's rec tx site.

The Benefits of Leisure

by Bev Driver (linked article no longer available)

(2-11-96) The benefits of leisure -- physical and mental health, economic development, family bonding, environmental awareness, and so on -- are now well-documented scientifically.

Leisure's Relationship to Health

by Peter Witt (linked article no longer available)

(2-11-96) Recreation and leisure activities may be one of our best methods for curbing our rising medical costs. They may be one of our best investments in health and a satisfying lifestyle.


Peter A. Witt, Texas A&M University

Students learn from disabled

by Ashley Hudson

(2-10-96) Do-it Leisure, the only therapeutic recreation organization in Chico State U., is helping bridge the gap between mainstream society and physically and mentally challenged people.

Recovering a Sense of Enjoyment

By Suzan DiBella

(2-10-96) Cynthia Carruthers' (UNLV) study of how people use alcohol to enhance their leisure time has produced some telling insights into the way that alcoholics think, behave, and, perhaps most importantly, respond to recovery programs.

1996 Paralympics' Volunteer Opportunities

(1-22-96) You are invited volunteer prior to and during the 1996 Paralympic Games in Atlanta, Georgia. Approximately 15,000 volunteers are needed.

Volunteer opportunities include airport operations, ushers, torch run escorts, guide runners for blind athletes, aides to officials, escorts for awards ceremonies, score board operators, interpreters, and more.

To volunteer for the Games, call (404) 724-2865, Barb Wilhite at University of Georgia for information about local housing.

Project TRAIN seeks Internet & TR Info

(1-22-96) Tom Gushiken is attempting to identify Internet resources through Project TRAIN (Therapeutic Recreation Access to Internet). Call Tom at (698) 785-8207 for more information or to send Internet & TR resources (email addresses, Web sites, Gopher sites, and others) that you have.


(1-22-96) Diane Bowtell has recently developed the Leisure Asset Scale. The LAS is used to predict future leisure participation patterns and potential level of satisfaction. Contact Dianne at (403) 471-2262 for more information.

TR- One of Fastest Growing Profession

(1-14-96)(linked article no longer available) Read the article reporting about therapeutic recreation being one of 30 fastest growing professions.

Horseback Riding and Recreation Therapy

(1-14-96) Read Octavia Brown's article on horseback riding as a therapy.

Duke U. Oncology RT's Smilelines Newsletter

(1-14-96) Read Pam Babinchak's and Duke University's Oncology Recreation Therapy Program's Smilelines Newsletter. Well worth your reading time!

ATRA Treatment Network

(12-18-95)(linked article no longer available)  ATRA's Office of Treatment Networks provides a mechanism for Recreation Therapists to network within their specialty area and to develop resources in clinical recreation therapy. Listed below are the network areas and contact person.

  • Mental Health/Well, Annette Jacobs, (704) 253-3681
  • Addictions, Yvette Evans,
  • Pediatrics, Dr. Edward Kesgen
  • Developmental Disabilities, Dr. Rosangela Boyd, (215) 787-6296
  • General Medicine, Dr. Ann James, (803) 656-2181
  • Physical Medicine & Rehab, Michael Haire
  • Gerontology, Melissa Lloyd, (509) 838-7940
  • School Systems, Janet Sable, (603) 862-0495
  • Oncology, Pam Babinchak (919) 681-2928

Online Courses

(12-18-95) Search the Globewide Network Academy for on-line courses in Therapeutic Recreation. A recent search found 2 classes in TR offered by the University of Missouri.

National ATRA Library

(12-17-95) The National ATRA Library currently has over 150 books, 3 periodical subscriptions and and extensive amount of archival materials. You may access these items through the Inter-Library Loan Department at your local library. For an updated inventory of the collection, contact Melissa Lloyd at (509) 838-7940. Donations to the ATRA Library is being accepted. Call (509) 359-6263 to find out how to donate items to this library.


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