an inTeRlink feature
TR Managers and the Internet
Compiled by Charles Dixon, MS, CTRS
In a North Dakota psychiatric facility, the manager of the recreation therapy department is having a difficult time recruiting interns to her remotely located facility. She posts a description of her internship program on the TR Internship Directory on the Internet and receives email from over 20 potential applicants.
In a Virginia state psychiatric facility, a TR supervisor is looking for in-service training ideas on teambuilding. He locates over 100 team-building activities within minutes on the Internet.
An individual seeking physical rehab care in West Virginia searches the Internet for information and specific facilities that might meet his needs. One facility provides extensive information about its rehab services including RT, OT, PT, and speech therapy services. Other facilities either have minimal information posted on their Web page or does not have a Web page at all. Which facility does this individual contact 1st?
Whether you’re ready or not, the World Wide Web is changing the way we do business, interact with others, shop, learn, and play. The therapeutic recreation manager who has access to the Internet has more information at his disposable and is able to communicate with others more quickly than those who are not connected.
As of July 2000, the Web exceeds 2 billion pages of information and growing at an explosive rate of more than 7 million pages each day. (Cyveillance- http://www.cyveillance.com/). As of October 21, 2001, 171.2 million Americans regularly access the Internet ( Nielsen Survey - http://18.104.22.168/nnpm/owa/NRpublicreports.usageweekly) In the early 1990’s, less than 2 of 10 therapeutic recreation computer application workshop participants (in an informal survey) used the Internet. By late 1990’s, more than 7 of 10 TR workshop participants indicated that they regularly used the Internet at work.
Resources for recreation therapists on the Web continue to expand. Both national therapeutic recreation associations (ATRA and NTRS) have informational Web pages that recreation therapists can access. NCTRC also has a Web site that provides information and online and offline certification application forms. State TR associations are also developing Web pages for its members. Private TR Web pages also exist including the Therapeutic Recreation Directory and Recreation Therapy WWW. Each of these Web sites provides information that can be accessed quickly 24 hours a day.
As the Internet grows, so does the 'knowledge gap' between what individuals know and what they don't know, translating directly into lost opportunities. More than ever, TR Managers now need to use the Internet to gather information, share information, and communicate. The Internet is a tool that the TR manager cannot idly discard. This chapter will help you to understand what the Internet is and to learn the various tools of the Internet that will help you better perform your job.
The Internet is simply a vast network interconnected computers, servers, satellites, telephone lines, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and routers that permit users to access database and explore information found on other computers and to send and receive information, mail, faxes, photos, videos, software, and music to each other.
Connecting to the Internet
Internet connection generally requires a computer (or digital telephone or personal assistance devices) and a modem (or other connection devices such as a terminal adapter or network card). The modem can be connected to the Internet via a satellite, cable TV, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), direct leased line, integrated services digital network (ISDN), or dial-up connection. The dial-up connection is the slowest but most common.
Once access to the Internet is established, various applications are available to perform a variety of services. Applications include a Web browser, email program, video conferencing, file transfer protocol program (FTP), telnet, wireless application protocol (WAP), instant messenger, music player, video player, Internet telephone, chat, bulletin board (BBS) and newsgroup.
The primary tool used to access the Internet by most people is called a browser. A browser permits users to browse through the many documents, files and services provided by computer servers located throughout the world. The most popular Web browsers are the Internet Explorer and Netscape. For an online resource on using Web browsers, go to “Ask Dr. Internet” at http://promo.net/drnet/
B. Using the Internet.
The two primary uses of the Internet are communication and information sharing and retrieval.
Email, video conferencing, newsgroups, majordomo, bulletin boards, chat room, instant messages, fax, telnet, and wireless application protocol.
Over the course of the past 5 years electronic mail (email) has become a form of communication many now can’t imagine living without. Each year 2.6 trillion email messages are sent across the Internet each year (Job Search, p139). It is projected that 13.1 trillion emails will be sent out each year by the year 2005 (IDC - http://www.idc.com/software/press/PR/SW091701Bpr.stm). TR managers can use email to maintain contact with colleagues and to share information with their subordinates (usually by a company’s local area network [LAN] email system).
Email is designed for convenience, not immediacy. Email is a conversation that does not require an immediate response (like a telephone). If someone calls you on the telephone, you pick it and the conversation begins. With email you send a message and then wait for a response. Although the person may receive the email instantly, the response may come in five minutes or the response may come in five days. Too many users assume that the minute someone receives an email it, the person will read it.
Opening an Email Account.
Some facilities provide their employees email accounts. If email access is not available at work, accounts can be obtained with local Internet Service Providers (ISP) or with services that provide free email accounts. The Free Email Address Directory (http://www.emailaddresses.com) lists hundreds of free Web-based email providers.
Once an email account is opened, an email software program such as Microsoft Outlook Express, Netscape Messenger or Eudora is needed to send and receive email. (Some email accounts permit access via a Web browser rather than an email software.) Your ISP or email service will provide specific instructions on setting up the email software. Instructions on setting up email service for the first time can be daunting for the new user. However,
The Email Software
After setting up your email software, you are ready to send email. The process of writing an email is much like filling out a form with various fields in which you enter information.
Recipient email address. The first field is for the recipient’s email address. An email address is composed of a string of characters separated by the ‘at’ symbol (@). The first section is often the recipient’s first or last name. After the @ symbol is the domain name followed by a period and a two or three letter extension such as .com, .edu, or .org. The extensions provide a clue as to the type or location of the user. For example, .edu is an educational institution, .com is a commercial group, .uk is an user from the United Kingdom. Other extensions in use include .info, .biz, and .cc.
A typical email address will thus look like this: UserName@WebServerName.com.
Note: When sending mail within local-area networks (LAN) or within a proprietary system such as America Online (AOL), email extensions such as aol.com can be left off. For example, LAN users can send mail to each other by using only the beginning part of the email address. Such users need to take care when sending or sharing email addresses with others and include their email extension. Many AOL users do not know or forget that they need to add the extension of aol.com when sending email to others outside of AOL. Without this information, the recipient may not have any idea as to sent the email.
Email will not reach its recipient if the address is written incorrectly. A single spelling error in the address will prevent mail from reaching its intended recipient.
When sending email, email can be sent to one recipient or to dozens by typing addresses in the TO: field and separating them by commas or semicolons. To send carbon copies of the email to someone, enter their email address in the CC: field. To keep others from knowing who else is receiving the same email, enter all the recipient’s email addresses in the BCC: (blind carbon copy) field.
Subject line or RE: With most email systems, this field is optional. However, recipients may not take time to read mail right away if the subject does not interest them. Therefore, give the email a subject title that will invite the recipient to open it upon receipt.
Message field. This is the section where the email message is written. Email can be sent in various formats from simple text to messages with HTML (hypertext markup language) and messages using fonts from different languages. Recommended is the use of simple text as some users may not have email program that can read HTML format.
Attachments. Most email software support attachments. Attachments are files (such as word processing, spreadsheet, audio, video, graphics, or application files). To attach a file, select the option marked “Attach” or “Insert File.” Then locate the file on the computer’s hard drive or diskette. Take note that the person receiving an attachment must have email software that can accept attachments. In addition, if sending a file such as a Microsoft Word document, the recipient must also have Word or an application that can read Word format. Be aware of the size of attachments. Large attachment can take a long time to send and receive. Some email servers may have restrictions on the size of attachments that it will accept. If possible, compress graphic files. A photographic Bitmap (.bmp extension) files may be 200,000 k in size. After compression and conversion to a .jpg file, the same photograph may be 10,000 k in size.
Important: Attachments can carry viruses. Before sending an attachment, scan it with a latest virus program. On the same note, do not open an attachment from an unknown source. Many unscrupulous individuals spread viruses for pleasure. Use an updated virus scan program to prevent a virus infection. Virus scanning programs configured to catch Internet spread virus will delete viruses that you might receive via email attachment. It is important that you have the latest virus scanning software and the latest virus definition list as hundreds of new viruses are created each month.
Sending. To send an email, simply click the SEND button. Depending on the configuration of the email software, the mail may be sent immediately or at a later time.
Address book. Most email software has an address book feature that permits users to track email addresses of colleagues, friends, and family. Depending upon the option selected, pick names from a list or simply type in the first few letters of the individual’s name and let the email software bring up the correct email address.
Time savers for the TR Manager – when sending out email to multiple recipients, use the Group Contact list feature. For instance, if you are a committee chair for this year’s conference, create a NEW GROUP from the address book and enter committee member email addresses to the new group. Give the new group a name. When sending out email to the group, simply type in the name of the group in the TO: section of your email form.
Forwarding. Want to send information to a colleague that was send to you? After receiving an email that you wish to forward, click on the FORWARD button, type in the recipient’s email address and press SEND. Recipients may not appreciate forwards and you should be certain that they will appreciate the forward email.
Replying to Mail. Nothing is more wasteful than to reply to an email by including a complete copy of the original with the words "I agree", "Okay" or "Ditto" at the bottom.
The correct method is to use quoting. This is best explained by an example:
>and do you agree with the proposal to hire Ms. Ross to
>handle our legal services?
Yes. Please make the necessary arrangements.
The '>' in front of the text indicates to the recipient that this is quoted material from his/her last email message. The second sentence is your response to the quoted material. The key with quoting is to include enough material in the quote so that it will be relevant to the recipient. Imagine that the original message was a hundred lines long and the only question that required a response was located in the last sentence. Why send the whole message back in the reply? That would cause the recipient to scroll through the hundred-line message again just to find your response at the bottom.
Flamming. To be flamed is to receive a “nasty” email in response to an email sent to another individual. Sometimes the reason for a flame is quite obvious (such as writing a nasty note yourself). Primary reasons for flame include sending out mass advertisement, sending an email in all uppercase, making a comment on their grammar or punctuation, requesting help for information that is readily available, and requesting help without providing specifics.
Often the best way to respond to a flame is to ignore it. Remember that old saying about "You can please some of the people..." Responding back to flame can result in what is known as a "flame war” where nasty messages are sent back and forth.
1) Email is NOT private. Email is like a postcard traveling through the Internet. Email does not travel in a straight line from the sender to the receiver. It travels from one location to another until it reaches the recipient. Although there is millions of email being sent each day, there is a chance that some unscrupulous individual may intercept email and read its content. In addition, email servers can accidentally forward mail to unintended recipients. To prevent others from reading an email message, email can be sent in an encrypted format that cannot be read by others. Encryption programs can be purchased from various software vendors.
2) When using company email, the company has the legal right to monitor out-going and in-coming correspondence.
3) Don’t write in all capital letters. Email in all uppercase suggests shouting.
4) Email hoax, unfortunately, has become a regular part of the email system. This is because email can be easily and freely sent to millions of people with a single click of the button. Some email hoax spread false stories, others invite users to forward email to win cash or prizes, and others warn recipients not to open email as it may contain a virus. Do not respond to such email and do not forward such email to others. Mail forwarding of hoaxes use up Internet bandwidth and slow down mail service. Several Web sites maintain information about email and Web-based hoaxes. One such site is found at http://www.nonprofit.net/hoax/hoax.html.
5) Read what you write. Check spelling and grammar. Although mail sent via email is less formal than postal mail, sending email or mail with spelling and grammar errors can create negative impressions.
6) Watch what you write. Without body language and tone of voice, words can come across differently than was intended.
7) Be sure to add your name at the end of your message.
8) Don’t respond to spam. Unless the spam is from a recognizable Web site, don’t attempt to unsubscribe. Once you unsubscribe from a list, spammers determine that your email is legitimate and will sell your email to others.
Email applications in TR
- Mass mail conference information to association members.
- Send survey questions to members.
- Send committee assignments and communicate project status with committee members.
- Save all important email correspondence in assigned folders to create a “paper” trail.
- Stay in touch.
At the simplest level, a newsgroup (or Usenet) is a large group discussion using email. When a participant sends an email to a specific newsgroup, everyone who has subscribed to that newsgroup receives the email. There are over 30,000 public newsgroups covering almost every topic imaginable. In this way, information is shared with hundreds to thousands of people that is participating in the newsgroup. Newsgroups can provide TR managers an opportunity to share thoughts and ideas with other recreation therapists.
To read newsgroup messages or to post messages, open an email program and subscribe to newsgroups your ISP offers through a news server, a remote computer that controls access to newsgroups. Scroll through an alphabetical list of specific newsgroups or conduct a search on a topic of your choice. Once a topic is located, simply double-click the name of the group to subscribe.
Once subscribed, you will begin to receive email from the newsgroup server whenever someone posts a message. Before posting (think of it as sending an email message) to a newsgroup, you should monitor it for a few days (called lurking) to make sure the newsgroup's content is relevant to your interest, and to read the Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) section if there is one. FAQs usually will provide a statement of direction for the newsgroup along with any other guidelines for it's usage.
Participants should follow the following newsgroup etiquette: 1) Do not send a newsgroup post asking for help. 2) Do not post advertisement or other unwanted messages. 3) Keep messages brief and stick to the subject. 4) When writing a reply to a previous post, quote only the portion of that message that is pertinent to your comments.
Replying to a message or posting your own message is as easy as creating email. You can choose to reply to the individual who posted the message or to use the Reply Group button on your email software to reply to everyone subscribed to the newsgroup. Use the New Post button to write a new message.
The address for therapeutic recreation newsgroup is alt.therapeutic.rec.
Majordomo (mailing list, listserv or discussion list)
Majordomo, although similar to newsgroups, is generally privately held. As with newsgroups, you subscribe to the mailing list via email.
After you have been accepted as a subscriber, you will receive every message sent by every subscriber to the list. These messages will be sent to the email address from which you subscribed. Any message you send to the list will be sent to every subscriber. Many lists' messages number in the dozens per day, so you may want to subscribe from different email accounts, if possible. Many lists offer a "digest" command that gathers the day's messages and delivers them all in one message to your email address.
Steps for subscribing to a list varies. To subscribe to most lists, simply email the list’s subscription email address with the words ‘subscribe’ in the Subject section of the email form. Leave the Body section of the email program empty and turn off any signatures that may be automatically attached to your email. Whatever the instruction, be sure to follow the subscription steps as specified. Wherever subscription steps are given, unsubscribe steps are also given. Be sure to write this down or bookmark the instructional Web page.
There are many discussions lists of interest to recreation therapists. Go to http://www.recreationtherapy.com/trlists.htm for further information.
Video and Audio Conferencing
With more computers connected to high-speed broadband services, video and audio conferencing is becoming more reliable. Therapeutic recreation associations in large states with few recreation therapists may find video conferencing more cost effective than traveling long distances several times a year. Several colleges provide credit courses via video conferencing.
Individuals can conduct video conferencing calls using a digital camera and microphone attached to their computer. A video conferencing software is also required. Microsoft’s Net Meeting is installed in many Windows operating system.
Video and audio conferencing permit users the ability to see each other talk in real time over great distances. Educational sessions and meetings can be conducted via video conferencing. An online whiteboard permit participants to draw pictures and symbols to share with each other.
Bulletin boards/forum (BBS)
Unlike newsgroups and majordomo where communication is in the form of an email, bulletins board systems permit users to post messages and to read messages on a Web page. A bulletin board archives messages and may permit users to search for past messages. Recreation therapist can find the bulletin board helpful when looking for advice from fellow professionals or to discuss current issues.
To use a bulletin board, visit a Web site that has a bulletin board. An example of a therapeutic recreation bulletin board is found at http://www.recreationtherapy.com/board/. This bulletin board requires that users register with an email address and a user name. Once registered, users are encouraged to read what others have posted. This is important to prevent the creation of a new thread (a thread is a series of messages on a specific topic) on a topic that is already in progress. Before asking a question, first search past postings to see if someone else has already asked the same question and received a response. It is not appropriate to post a question that has already been answered in the past.
Be sure to read the FAQ section and the Rules section of the bulletin board if one exists. This prevents users from making mistakes and posting messages that will draw ire from others and the bulletin board administrator. Most bulletin boards prohibit advertisement messages, using language that offends others, and impersonating another person.
To respond to a message posted by others, simply click on the link to the message and then click the Reply icon or link. Depending upon the bulletin board, a password and user name must be entered prior to posting a message. Otherwise, enter the message and hit the send button. The message will be posted immediately. If the message is not shown upon return to the bulletin board, the RELOAD or REFRESH button on the Web browser can be hit. This is because most computers retain Web page information in memory and do not update information until the browser is closed and then reopened (Note: this setting can be changed from the options section of the Web browser). Reload (Netscape function) or refresh (Internet Explorer function) forces the Web browser to show the latest information found on the Web site.
Important: Information that you post is openly available to the entire world. Be careful of the words you choose, your tone, and spelling as this reflects you and your profession. Also note that future employers may conduct background checks and this may include checking messages that you may have posted on bulletin boards and other messaging centers.
Chat rooms are online forums where users can gather to hold real-time, text-based conversations. Groups of 2 to 50 and more can meet in a chat room to simply chat, to participate in an educational lecture, or to play games. Chat rooms can be private or public. Private chat rooms require a password to access it.
Chat rooms can be used for group meetings and distant educational classes. Some chat systems can host video images to permit users to see each other (of course each person will need a camera connected to their computer system). Chat rooms can also feature a white board where users can draw diagrams or post images.
Discussion in chat rooms can become difficult to follow when ten or more people are in the room. In such cases, having a moderator can keep order.
A TR chat room is available at http://www.recreationtherapy.com/chat/.
Chat Room Application for TR:
- Invite a presenter to discuss current TR issues in a chat room.
- Conduct online committee meetings.
- Meet fellow recreation therapists from around the country and world.
- Take online distant learning class.
Instant messaging (IM) systems provide users the ability to send written messages to one other individual in real time. Various online websites provide free IM programs. They include America Online at http://www.aol.com, Microsoft at http://www.microsoft.com, and ICQ at http://web.icq.com/. Instant messages are secure and cannot be intercepted by others. IM systems permit users to set up a “Buddy List” so that when a buddy comes online, the IM program will alert the user of the buddy’s presence on the Internet. Some IM programs permit PC to PC voice conversations.
Free or low cost long distance telephone calls can be placed via the Internet. Called voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Internet telephone can be used to call any telephone around the world or to other computers. Free calls can only be made to other computers. Calls to regular telephones currently costs 3.9 cents per minute (http://msn.zdnet.com/msn/zdnet/story/0%2C12461%2C2633954-hud00025intp%2C00.html).
Sending Fax via the Computer
Files located on a computer can easily be faxed via the Internet or telephone lines to fax machines and other computers using fax software. Fax software can send and receive fax as well as broadcast faxes to any number of recipients including email addresses.
Telnet is a service that allows users to log into a server remotely to perform specific tasks. Common tasks include checking for new mail (via pine) or sending outgoing mail (via sendmail). Other common tasks include modifying file permissions and using editors to modify files on the server. Telnet is less user friendly than other Internet applications and is an application now generally reserved for more technical users of the Internet.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
WAP is simply standardized way that a mobile phone talks to a server installed in the mobile phone network. WAP permits users of mobile phones to connect to web pages designed specifically for viewing on a mobile phone. Currently there are no therapeutic recreation web sites with WAP formatted Web pages.
2. Information Sharing, Retrieval and Interactivity
Web Site Development: More than an informational online brochure
A therapeutic recreation business, organization or department should consider developing a Web site. At its simplest form, the therapeutic recreation department Web site can provide basic information about its services. This can result in reduced burden on administrative staff resulting in fewer telephone calls and requests for basic information. Web pages can be quickly updated and modified to announce new services, new activities, or to promote upcoming events.
Although most information providers use their Web sites as electronic brochures, they are not using the full power of the Internet. This section will explore how to harness the power of Web sites.
Making information available is possibly the most important way to serve consumers of TR services. Online technologies make servicing customers an easy and time efficient process. Improvements in customer service can be realized by using online standard survey forms that can capture consumer data, publishing frequently requested information, and posting information about TR services, goals, and activities. This can be achieved without requiring staff to attend to those inquiries.
Making Service information available
The World Wide Web makes it possible to make current and accurate program information instantaneously available to consumers and potential consumers. Those providing private TR services can post information on the Web site that include: office hours, address, telephone numbers, references, types of payment that are accepted and other information of this nature as well as treatment information. It also could include pricing information. There is increased the likelihood of customers deciding to do business by making information of this nature available more readily available via the Internet. Those providing TR services within a TR department of a hospital might want to post information about the departments treatment and services. Larger facilities with many programs and services can post treatment and activity schedules that clients can review and even sign-up for activities.
Networking and Email
A large part of business is making contact with other people and organizations, essentially contributing to the popular perception that it is not what you know but whom you know. The World Wide Web provides the opportunity to create contact with many hundreds of fellow recreation therapists.
Release of Time Sensitive Materials
In situations where materials need to be released immediately the World Wide Web makes for a wonderful delivery mechanism. Email is often the fastest, cheapest and most convenient method of sending out announcements regarding an upcoming event, of sending a news release to multiple news organizations, or of sending information to members of the state TR association.
Answers to frequently asked questions
Organizations spend a large amount of time answering the same questions over and over again by telephone. Posting FAQ’s on the departments or organizations Web page saves valuable staff time.
In most cases it is prohibitively expensive to utilize sound, pictures and film to promote products and services. The World Wide Web allows effortless and cost effective delivery of text, sound, static pictures and short film clips to showcase products and services. The Web makes multimedia available on a site's page but also allows for the incorporation of multimedia content into electronic mail to be sent out over the Web.
To make sales
The World Wide Web is steadily becoming a more viable showroom from which to sell products to customers. Customers can view TR or TR-related products on an online catalogue, place orders, and have credit cards automatically verified. Online stores stay open 24 hours a day and 7 days a week.
The Internet makes it virtually no difference if the other party is across the street or on the other side of the world. Email provides an inexpensive method of developing and maintaining contacts with people around the world.
Due to the interactive nature of the Internet it is possible for people to instantly and effortlessly provide feedback via email or online forms. This feedback could include questions, suggestions and assistance.
The departmental or organization Web page can be more than an informational catalog. Organizations should consider placing information about their services on the Internet and then continually seek ways to take advantage of the power that an interactive Web page can provide their organization.
- Learning to use search engines and directories
- Reference sites
- Veracity of information
- Where to go… accessing informational Web sites and databases
- Online Job Searches
- Posting Jobs Online
- Background checks
- Distant learning
- Online teaching (html, Shockwave, Flash, Director)
Shopping for therapeutic recreation supplies, craft items, books, sports equipment and relaxation tapes can be accomplished on the Internet. Shopping online and providing credit card number and personal information can be safe as long as safe procedures are practiced.
First, use the latest and most secure Web browser available. And second, make sure the shopping site is using a secure-socket layer (SSL). A secure Web browser and a secure Web site will work hand in hand to assure that information being sent over the Internet is sent in a secure format.
To determine if a Web site is secure, simply check the bottom status bar of your Web browser and look for a closed pad lock. For additional information on the security of the Web page, right click on the Web page, click properties, and click certificate. If this site is secure, security information will be provided.
Finally, if the information from the Web server is being emailed to the owner of the Web site, this email must be sent in a secure format. To completely safeguard email transmission of confidential information, the Web server must encrypt the email in a PCP format. Note that this feature is not necessary on large shopping sites that have their own servers such as Amazon.com. This feature is needed only for online stores that rent Web space from other companies and need to have online transactions emailed from the Web server to the company’s computer.
As with the real world, the virtual world of the Internet is also fraught with pitfalls. There are those that will commit crime online, there are those that will attempt to steal personal information, and there are those that will attempt to harm one’s computer via viruses.
According to Mcafee.com (September 2001), 44.99% of computers world wide are infected with a virus. Email attachment should never be opened unless it is from a trusted individual. Even then, an up-to-date anti-virus program should always be on to catch the thousands of viruses and trojan horses that are being spread by the Internet and email.
Email hoaxes appear to be as prevalent as viruses. Email hoaxes include false stories that are corrupted versions of true stories and outright hoaxes. The Internet has become an efficient and expansive way to disseminate rumors and hoaxes. However, the Internet also provides the means to learn more about hoaxes and false stories. It is a good policy that email is never forwarded if the information sent via email cannot be collaborated.
To reduce the number of unwanted email (spam), do not give out your primary email to business, do not use your primary email address when posting comments in online guest books or bulletin boards, and do post your primary email address on Web sites. Instead, signup for an email address with one of the free services such as Yahoo or Hotmail and use this email address when posting it on the Internet.
Email is not secure. Email should be treated much like a postcard where anyone can read what is being sent. Consider using encryption programs to create encrypted email before sending sensitive information.
Personal information should be protected as unscrupulous individuals may steal one’s identity or credit card information. Many Web sites require passwords to help protect personal information. Do not use passwords that can be easily determined by others. A random combination of numbers and letters is more difficult to crack than a word found in the dictionary. Passwords should not be written down and placed where others can view it. Passwords should also be changed regularly.
For those individuals or organizations with a Web site, understanding how hackers can damage or deface a Web site and steal information is a must. Hackers can access Web sites by stealing passwords, by locating a CGI script program such as a guestbook, email form, or bulletin board with security holes.
Firewall describes a device to block unwanted network traffic while allowing other traffic to pass through the computer’s Internet connection. A firewall is highly recommended for those computers that are connected to the Internet via broadband or other high speed connection. Because computers with broadband and -------- connection are continually connected to the Internet, hackers can find ways to enter the computer and steal information or damage the computer. Firewalls help prevent hackers from entering the computer.
Much time can be wasted on the Internet. Much of the World Wide Web is redundant. The information provided is not always reliable and often biased. Staff can waste time by playing games online, chatting with friends, reading and sending personal email, and browsing favorite Internet sites.
- Increased bandwidth > audio, video, dynamic v static, interactivity
- Portable devices and connectivity
- Internet II for educational institutions
- National Organizations
- State Organizations
Arizona State TRA
Connecticut Association of Therapeutic Recreation Directors, Inc.
Illinois Recreational Therapy Association
Nebraska Association of Recreation Therapists
New Jersey/Easter Pennsylvania Chapter
New York State TRA
North Carolina RTA
West Virginia TRA
- Independent Sites
Therapeutic Recreation Directory
Wellness Reproductions & Publishing, Inc.
- International Sites
Attached file -- A file that is embedded into an email message.
Broadband transmission - Broadband is high-speed interactive TV and PC cable service, DSL service, wideband wireless Internet connections, digital broadcast-delivered enhanced services, streaming media offerings and two-way satellite Internet connectivity. Broadband connection to the Internet is hundreds of times faster than dial-up connection.
Bulletin board system (BBS) - An open computer system that members can dial into in order to send email, join discussion groups, and download files. Also messaging system that permits users to read and post messages.
Cache - Pronounced cash, a special high-speed storage mechanism. Web browsers store Web pages that they have visited in its memory. To view the latest information posted on a Web page, the cache may have to be unloaded by pressing the Reload or the Refresh button on the Web browser.
Chat - Online communication that enables typed conversations to occur in real-time.
Common Gateway Interface (CGI) - A standard used by programmers that allows their programs to interact with the World Wide Web. Guest books and online forms are often powered by CGI.
Cookie - Cookies are small text files recorded in a user's hard drive that are placed there by various Web sites. Cookies allow sites and advertisers to "remember" users across pages of a site and across multiple visits to a site. Cookies cannot damage user files, nor can they read information from a user's hard drive. Cookies are helpful to the user in that it remembers user information such as passwords, names and addresses.
Dial-up Connection – A means of connecting the computer to the Internet using the telephone.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) – DSL is a service that offers a faster Internet connection than a standard dial-up connection. DSL technology uses existing 2-wire copper telephone wiring to deliver high-speed data services to homes and businesses. DSL offers users a choice of speeds ranging from 144 Kbps to 1.5Mbps. This is 2.5x to 25x times faster than a standard 56Kbps dial-up modem.
Electronic Mail (Email) - Software application that allow users to send and receive written messages with someone else via the Web.
Encryption - A procedure that renders the contents of a message or file unintelligible to anyone not authorized to read it. PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is a commonly-used encryption program.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) - An Internet protocol that enables you to transfer files between computers on the Internet.
Hacker -- An expert programmer who likes to spend a lot of time figuring out the finer details of computer systems or networks. The term is often attributed to those individuals that attempt to break into someone else’s computer system or network.
Home page - A web page that is the primary source of information about a particular person, group, or concept.
Hyperlinks – A highlighted word or picture within a hypertext document that when clicked takes you to another place within the document or to another document.
Hypertext - Documents that contain links to other documents within them.
Hypertext markup language (HTML) - Text markup language used to insert tags that allow a Web browser to correctly display a hyper-text document.
Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) - The protocol used by the World Wide Web to transfer HTML files.
Information superhighway - Synonymous with the Internet.
Instant Messaging – A Web program that permit one-to-one text messaging in real time.
Internet - The collective electronic network of computers and computer networks which are inter-connected throughout the world.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) – A multi-user, multi-channel chatting system.
Internet Service Provider (ISP) – Any company or organization that provides connection to the Internet.
Java - An object oriented programming language created by Sun Microsystems. Java is a device independent language, meaning that programs compiled in Java can be run on any computer. Java programs can be run as a free-standing application or as an applet placed on a web page.
Modem - A device that permit the computer to connect to the Internet via the telephone line.
Netiquette -- Network etiquette, or the set of informal rules of behavior that have evolved in the Internet.
Newsgroup - A public place where messages are posted for public viewing and response. The most available distribution of newsgroups is USENET that contains over ten thousand unique newsgroups covering numerous topics.
Plug-in – A third party add-on software that adds new features to a commercial software program.
Portable Document Format (PDF) - PDF is a universal file format that preserves all the fonts, formatting, graphics, and color of any source document, regardless of the application and platform used to create it. Adobe PDF files are compact and can be shared, viewed, navigated, and printed exactly as intended by anyone with free Adobe Acrobat® Reader® software.
Search engine - A program or web site that enables users to search for keywords on web pages throughout the Web.
Server - A computer that provides information to client machines. For example, there are web servers that send out web pages, mail servers that deliver email, list servers that administer mailing lists, FTP servers that hold FTP sites and deliver files to users who request them, and name servers that provide information about Internet host names.
Spam -- To send a message (usually an advertisement) to many discussion groups (bulletin boards and/or newsgroups) and to email addresses without permission of the recipients.
Telnet - a method of logging into another computer as a terminal on that computer.
Universal Resource Locator (URL) - This is the unique address given to each web page.... http://www.recreationtherapy.com is an example of URL
USENET - the name given to the computer network that carries newsgroups.
Wireless application protocol (WAP) - an open, global specification that empowers mobile users with wireless devices to easily access and interact with information and services on the Internet.
Web Browser – an Internet application that retrieves documents, images, video and files from a server and displays them in HTML format.
Webmaster - A person in charge of administrating a Web site.
WorldWideWeb/WWW/W3/Web - The name given to the collection of computers that serve information to the Internet.
Net Dictionary - http://www.netdictionary.com/
Webopedia - http://webopedia.internet.com/