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Recreational therapy history by Categories

complied by Jeffrey A. Mansfield

If you have information to add please send to:

[ archives page | timeline index: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | compilation | bibliography | transcript | pictures ]

This is a chronologically listed and categorically compiled list of recreational therapy history.

Categories of progression:

Events, Individuals, Associations, Legislation, and Schools

400 B.C. to present
Mental Illness
1854 Crimean War
1900 Tuberculosis: In 1906 it killed 1 in every 500 people in the U.S. It continues to kill 3 million worldwide annually.
1917 The US enters WWI, ends 1918 (official period of medical emergency April 16, 1917 to July 2, 1921)
1929 Wall Street Crashes
1940-1959 (26,635 killed by nationwide polio epidemic)
1941 The US enters WWII, ends 1945
1950 Korean War, ends 1953
1965 The US sends troops to Vietnam, withdraws 1973
1982-1989 (63,159 killed by AIDS)
2010-2030 Baby boomers reach old-age (65)

Hull House, Chicago, IL, founded by Jane Addams (1860-1935) and Ellen Gates Starr, provides community services and recreation to the poor.
1892 Adolph Meyer (1866-1950) , a psychiatrist at Kankakee State Hospital in IL, reported that "the proper use of time in some helpful and gratifying activity appeared to be a fundamental issue in the treatment of the neuropsychiatric patient."
1895 William Rush Dunton, Jr. (1868-1966), "Father of Occupational Therapy," staff psychiatrist at Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Asylum in Baltimore (SEPA), goes on to become editor of "Occupational Therapy and Rehabilitation," instructor in psychiatry at Johns Hopkins University, and a President of the AOTA.
1914 George Edward Barton coins the term "Occupational Therapy". It had been formerly known by many titles such as moral treatment, work treatment, work therapy, occupation treatment, occupation reeducation, ergotherapy. He defined occupational therapy as "the science of instructing and encouraging the sick in such labours as will involve those energies and activities producing a beneficial therapeutic effect."
1914 Susan E. Tracy, (considered the first occupational therapist) as Director of the Experiment Station for the Study of Invalid Occupations, Jamaica Plains, MA, wrote a flier describing the occupation course offered. The flier states that: "Each patient is considered in light of his threefold personality-body, mind, and spirit.
1915 Eleanor Clark Slagle (a graduate of the Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy) organizes the first professional school for occupational therapists, the Henry B. Favill School of Occupations, in Chicago. She served as director from 1915 to 1920. Included in the program were craft activities and preindustrial and vocational work as well as games, folk dancing, gymnastics, and playground activities. This program attempted to create a balance of work, rest, and play for mentally ill patients. The school closed, as many did after the end of the war.
1917 The National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (NSPOT) formed. Charter members were Barton, Slagle, Dunton, Susan C. Johnson (occupational therapist at Montefiore Hospital in New York), Isabel G. Newton (Barton's secretary), and Thomas B. Kidner (vocational secretary of the Military Hospital Commission of Canada). Tracy, unable to attend, was elected as an active member and incorporator of the society.
1922-1955 Dr. John Eisele Davis Chief of Corrective Therapy, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service, Veterans Administration Hospital, Washington, DC. Founder of the Association of Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, an affiliate of AAHPER. Fellow of the American Physical Education Association.
1941 Psychiatrist Karl Augustus Menninger (1893-198?) establishes the Menninger Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the furtherance of psychiatric research in Topeka, KS. The Menninger Clinic was founded in 1913.
1951 Drs. Lucy D. Ozarin and Paul Haun, Department of Medicine and Surgery
1952 Dr. Bernath Eugene Phillips (RT Section editor) announces the creation of the Recreational Therapy Section of AAHPER, a division of the NEA. The RTS replaces the Industrial and Institutional Section. Phillips became the first CAHR registered Hospital Recreation Director on Mar. 18, 1957.

Association of Asylum Medical Superintendents (Later becomes APA)
1906 National Recreation Association
1909 Society for Mental Hygiene establishes an occupational department
1917 National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (NSPOT)
1918 First National Recreation Congress
1920 National Association of Ex-Military Reconstruction Aides
1923 NSPOT becomes American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA)
1930 National Education Association-American Association of Health and Physical Education
1934 Works Progress Administration-Recreation Division
1938 NEA-AAHPE, adds Recreation to become (AAHPER)
1941 AAHPER-Therapeutic Section
1942 American Recreation Society-Recreation Worker
1945 Veterans' Administration-Recreation Service
1947 AAHPER-Association of Physical and Mental Rehabilitation (APMR)
1948 American Recreation Society-Hospital Recreation Section
1950 American Association of Rehabilitation Therapists (AART)
1952 AAHPER-Recreational Therapy Section
1953 National Association of Recreational Therapy (NART)
1953 Council for the Advancement of Hospital Recreation (CAHR)
(2) ARS-Hospital Section
(2) AAHPER-Recreational Therapy Section
(2) NART
(1) NRA-Hospital Consultant
1961 Comeback, Inc.
1963 VA Department of Medicine and Surgery, Rehabilitation and Research Section
1966 The NRA and ARS merge into the National Recreation and Parks Association (NRPA)
1966 National Recreation and Parks - National Therapeutic Recreation Society
1981 National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification
1984 American Therapeutic Recreation Association

1920 Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 2 JUN 1920 (PL113)
1926 Recreation Act of 1926-43ss 869-869-3
1934 Works Progress Administration-Recreation Division
1935 Social Security Act establishes a federal program of old-age insurance.
1937 Congress funds VAMCs for recreational activities and facilities at institutions, is current.
1943 Federal Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 6 JUL. 1943 (PL 190)
funds physical and vocational restoration, amendment to Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1920 (PL113)
1965 Medicare (Health Insurance for the aged) is added to Social Security benefits
196? Passage of Public Law 90--170, which results in training grants and research for therapeutic recreation
196? PL 90-480 Architectural Barriers Act, tax incentives for barrier removal
1973 PL 93-113 Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504
1974 PL 94-142 Education for All Handicapped
198? IDEA amendments
198? Older Americans Act Reauthorization
198? Older Americans Personal Welfare Education Training Act
1990 American's with Disabilities Act-ADA (101-336)
1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act-IDEA (101-476)
1992 UT Title 58 Recreational Therapy Practice Act, licensure
1996 CA Assembly Bill 2853-Recreation Therapy title legislation.

1908 Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy is established at Hull House.
1915-1920 Henry B. Favill School of Occupations, in Chicago.
1918 St. Louis School for Reconstruction Aides
1919 St. Louis School for Reconstruction Aides, changes name to the
St. Louis School of Recreational and Occupational Therapy
1950 Hospital Recreation/Rehabilitation Masters Programs Springfield College; M.S. PE & Rec. in Rehabilitation U of MN; M.S. Hospital Recreation (taught at med school) Columbia U; PE & Rec. in Rehabilitation
1953 Sacramento State College offers B.A. in Recreational Therapy
San Francisco State College develops a Hospital Recreation program
New York University starts a Hospital Recreation Graduate program
1957 SUNY Cortland offers a master's degree in Hospital Recreation San Jose starts a Hospital Recreation program, and is affiliated with the Palo Alto VA. Texas Women's University offers Recreational Therapy bachelor's degree
1958 U of Iowa offers undergraduate and graduate specialization in Hospital Recreation
1995 Western Carolina University is the first institution of higher education to offer B.S. in Recreational Therapy, offering a clinical perspective of recreation, rather than just a therapeutic bent to a recreation degree.
1996 University of Findlay, OH offers a B.S. degree in Recreation Therapy



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